Our Project is certified by Project Supervisor Dr. Moktadir Alam Arafat(professor) Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering to us. The name of our Project is GSM based-GPS Tracking system.
Table of Contents
The GSM Based GPS Vehicle Tracking System Project-2019
This thesis could never be described as a solo effort, and would never have come into existence without the supervision, assistance, and support provided by the following individuals. We would like to take an opportunity to express my gratitude to these people.
First, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to our supervisor, Dr. Moktadir Alam (Arafat) Professor, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rangpur Engineering College, Rangpur. For his continuous guidance, valuable discussion and constructive suggestions in various phases of the research work and preparation of this thesis.
We are forever grateful to Afia Binte Rahaman, Lecturer, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rangpur Engineering College, Rangpur and Md. Murad Ali Dept. Head of Information and Communication Engineering, Rangpur Engineering College, Rangpur. We cannot say thank enough for her tremendous support and help. We feel motivated and encouraged every time we attend his meeting. Without his encouragement and guidance, this thesis would not have been materialized.
Inspiration: “Hard work does not give you success, Only right kind of gives you success”
We are also grateful to Management of REC for providing us a platform to do our research work. Finally, we would like to convey our indebtedness and gratefulness to our parents for their continued financial support, enthusiastic encouragement and motivation to nature our dream to complete this work.
The Global positioning system is developed for the purpose of vehicle security with tracking facilities. One of the applications is tracking a vehicle or any other objects and keeps regular monitoring on them. This tracking system can inform the location and route traveled by the vehicle as well as the target, and that information can be observed from any other remote location. This system enables us to track the target in any weather conditions with the exact location of the target. For which, our system is based on GPS and GSM technologies interfacing with microcontroller and web application to be acquainted with the client-server.
List of Abbreviations:
|Global Positioning System
|Pulse Width Modulation
|Modulation and Demodulation
|Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
|In-Circuit Serial Programming
|Universal Serial Bus
|Global System for Mobile Communication
|Fixed Dialing Number
|Short Message Service
|Enhanced Data GSM Environment
|The Universal Mobile Communication System
|High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
|HyperText Markup Language
|Vehicle Tracking System
“Always learn from Expert, Don’t waste your time on experiment. Always use proven successful method”
In this urban life, transportation is very common. A lot of miss happenings befall on the road every day. Therefore the need for security and monitoring is developed. To resolve such problems, a system is developed using GPS and GSM technologies and an application is initiated in this research work.
Various problems that we face:
- In a critical condition (when the vehicle is stolen), one is confused about what to do
- If one has something costly and he wants to check it regularly
- To find the shortest path available
All these problems are overcome by the system.
This system has a Global Positioning System (GPS) which will receive the coordinates from the satellites among other critical information. The tracking system is very important in the modem world.
This can be useful in warrior monitoring, tracking of the theft vehicle and various other applications. The system is microcontroller based that consists of a global positioning system (GPS) and global system for mobile communication (GSM). This project uses only one GPS
Device and a two-way communication process are achieved using a GSM modem. GSM modem, provided with a SIM card uses the same communication process as we are using on a regular phone. The system is not limited to find the location of the target but also the distance traveled b/w two stations.
This system is user-friendly, easily install-able, freely accessible and can be used for different other purposes. After installation system will locate the target by the use of a Web application in Google map. The system allows tracking the target anytime and anywhere in any weather conditions.
This report limits itself to the discussion of the GPS, their structure, operations, and appropriateness in different sectors and applications across the Earth. This report aims to fulfill the following objectives:
- Explain what is meant by GPS and other GPS
- technicality and as well shed some light on its history
- talk over the structure and operations of the GPS system
- Discuss the different structures of GPS segments
- The primary functions of GPS systems and technologies
- Identify sources of errors that can sentiment the accuracy of GPS information
- Identify the primary users of GPS applications and other need to conditions that should be fulfilled when purchasing GPS systems
- Identify other opponent versions of GPS systems
Equipment and Their Principle
Elements of the GPS System:
The GPS system consists of 3-segments called the Control Segment, the Space Segment, and the User Segment. Proper operation of each of these three segments results in accurate, reliable operation of the entire system. The Control Segment is made of the prime control center located at Falcon Air Force Base, near Colorado Springs, USA, and several-monitoring and control stations located around the world. These stations monitor the satellites, report the results to the main control center, and relay the control signals originate in Colorado back to the satellites. The Control Segment stations are the only one which transmits to the satellites. The information they send to the satellites provides for positioning the satellites in orbit, provides data to be broadcast in the satellites’ navigation messages, and generally provides control of the satellite operation. Part of the satellite broadcast data involves a health status. The Control Segment is responsible for detecting satellites that are not broadcasting properly, or that are not in the proper orbit, and commanding the satellites to identify themselves as unhealthy when circumstances warrant. This allows the Control Segment to keep results obtained from using the system consistently within operating specification
The Space Segment is composed of a constellation of satellites orbiting approximately 20,000 km (about 12,500 miles) above the Earth. The full constellation is defined as 24 satellites, but there may be more or fewer active at any one time. The satellites are arrayed in 6 separate orbits, each inclined about 550 with respect to the equator, with 4 slots per orbit designated to hold a satellite. The orbit is traversed in about 12 hours. With a full constellation, receivers located on most spots on the Earth can see at least 6, and sometimes as many as 12 of the satellites at any one time. The User Segment is the term given to all of the receivers hearing to the satellites at any time. There is no association to the User Segment, but for any user, it consists of the receiver currently in use and its associated antenna. User receivers are inactive they need only listen to the Space Segment and not broadcast anything, thus making the system accessible to any number of users at one time without users interfering with each other.
While all 3-segments operate at one time, the typical user is basically unnameable of the Control Segment, and only anxiety himself with the operation of his own receiver and the satellites in reality visible at his location during his time of use. Further, limitations in distinct receivers may make the user aware of only some of the satellites visible at his location, since the receiver may only be chosen few of them to monitor.
- Arduino Mega
- SIM808 Expansion Shield
- GSM Antenna
- GPS Antenna
- External Power Supply
- Some Wire
- SIM Card
The Arduino mega 2560 is a micro-controller base on the AT mega 2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (which 24 can be used as PWM outputs),16 analog pins,4 UARTS, a 16 mega crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and are set button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller, simply connect to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC to DC adapter or battery to get started. The mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino decimal.
Figure (2.1): Arduino Mega
SIM808 Expansion Shield:
SIM808 module could be a complete Quad-Band GSM/GPRS module which combines GPS technology for satellite navigation. The compact model which integrated GPRS and GPS in an SMT package can considerably save each time and costs for customers to develop GPS enabled applications. Featuring associate industry-standard interface and GPS operate, permits variable assets to be caterpillar-tracked seamlessly at any location and anytime with signal coverage.
- Quad-band 850/900/1800/1900MHz
- GPRS multi-slot class 12/10
- GPRS mobile station class B
- Compliant to GSM phase 2/2+
- Class 4 (2 W @ 850/900MHz)
- Class 1 (1 W @ 1800/1900MHz)
- Supply voltage range 3.4 ~ 4.4V
- Low power consumption
Figure-(2.2): SIM 808 Expansion Shield
Like any wireless technology, whatever, GSM communications are dependent on antennas. Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication systems is fast becoming the standard in mobile phones everywhere. The GSM system allows users to talk virtually someplace in the world. It’s basically a global roaming service that’s based on satellite communications, and it offers uncommon flexibility and freedom for mobile phone users who have embraced this wireless technology. Like any wireless technology, whatever, GSM communications are dependent on antennas. That means that GSM services and later generations of the technology like EDGE, and HSDPA. are in constant need of custom antenna designers to help them keep up with customer demand and to introduce new innovations to the marketplace.
There are many advantages to using GSM technology, Given bellow-
- Global roaming
- Ability to switch services while keeping the same phone Figure-(2.3): GSM Antenna
- The ability to send text messages
GPS antenna is a type of active antenna that can broadly use in the communication system. This GPS antenna draws about 10mA and will give us an additional 28 dB of gain. It’s got a 5m label so it will reach wherever needs it to. The antenna is magnetic so it’ll stick to the top of a car, automobile or truck. Comes with a standard SIM connector on the end. If we connect to our ultimate GPS V3 module, be sure to pick up a UFL to SMA adapter.
Figure-(2.4): GPS Antenna
Advantage of GPS antenna:
GPS antenna works all-weather, day-night, worldwide, direct down-link, restricted access and survivable. It also smoothly works in 3D position and velocity.
The disadvantage of GPS antenna: GPS antenna dependent on the ground station, it also varies the original signal.
- Power Supply: The power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary power provide is to convert electrical phenomenon from a supply to the right voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. Here we used the chargeable battery, charging through the adapter.
- Connecting Wires: Male to male and female to male connecting cable are used to connect Arduino with the Module.
Figure-(2.5): Connection Diagram
Working and Connection Procedure:
The SIM808 module has to be connected to Arduino Mega as follows:
- Vcc to 5V
- Gnd to Gnd
- RXD to digital pin 11
- TXD to digital pin 10
When the board is power on, the LED will light up. After a long press (about 2 seconds) on this button, the other three LEDs (D3, D4, D5) will be light. And one in every of them starts to flash this suggests that SIM808 is setting out to work currently When the power Energy, GSM, and GPS antenna and SIM card are connected to the module justly, the LED will be flash slowly (3-Second delay), that indicates that the module is registered to the network, and the user can make a call or do something else. When we ready with our hardware after programming, we can install it in our vehicle and power it up. Then we just need to send a SMS, Number of Track Vehicle, to the system that is placed in our vehicle.
The sent message is received by the GSM module which is connected to the system and sends message data to Arduino. Arduino reads it and extracts the main message from the whole message. And then compare it with the predefined message in Arduino. If any match occurs then Arduino reads coordinates by extracting $GPGGA thread from GPS module data and send it to the user by using GSM module. This message contains the coordinates of vehicle location.
Figure-(2.6): Block Diagram of GPS system
Principle of Operations:
Broken down to the simplest terms, the satellites orbiting above the Earth simply broadcast their location and the current time. The receivers listen to several satellites and from the broadcasts determine what time it is and where the receivers are located. The waves that undergo phase changes that occur in a defined pattern at very precise rates and at exact times. A receiver generates the phase-change pattern and moves it back and forth in time, attempting to correlate it with signals it receives.
If the signal it is trying to correlate with is being received, at some point the received pattern and the internally generated pattern will match. The correlated circuit will then generate a large output. This pattern match and associated correlated output constitute lock-on to a satellite and provides a pattern generator in the receiver that is working exactly in step with the received
Signal. Knowing how much this generator was shifted in time tells the receiver when the signal arrived at the receiver with respect to its own internal clock. If the receiver could determine how its clock was adjusted with respect to true GPS time, it would then know exactly how long it took the signal from the satellite to reach the receiver. When the receiver multiplies this time by the speed of light, it knows how far it is from the satellite.
In addition to transmitting a specific phase-change pattern that is unique for each satellite, additional data is also added to the signal. This data comprises the Navigation Message. It includes the current time to the nearest second, and the information needed to compute the location of the satellite at the time of transmission.
Using this information, the receiver can set its clock to the rightly second, and compute the current position of the satellite. It now knows how far it is from the satellite, and where the satellite is. Using simple geometry, the receiver now knows it is somewhere on the surface of a sphere centered on that satellite with a radius equal to the distance from the satellite. Let’s look at unique which are arriving at the antenna of a receiver. The receiver searches for specific satellites by generating and shifting the pattern for each satellite that may be broadcasting.
Once matches are found, the receiver can compute the distance, called pseudo-range, to each satellite. If the receiver’s clock precisely coordinated to GPS time, the receiver could immediately compute its position using simple algebra.
Unfortunately, the receiver’s clock is generally not set exactly to GPS time. So, the pseudo-range consists not only of the time it took the signal to travel to the receiver but also an amount that represents how far the receiver clock and GPS time dissent. This is called the clock offset and represents a 4th unknown. Clock offset can be either positive or negative since the receiver clock could be either behind GPS time. The pseudo-range is measured in units of time.
Because we know that the signal traveled to the receiver at the speed of light we can convert it to a distance simply by multiplying it by that number. Similarly, clock offset is measured in units of time and can also be converted to distance as well. This distance or time error is common to all of the pseudo ranges since the receiver uses the same clock to measure all pseudo ranges.
When a receiver achieves a satellite, the receiver monitors the navigation message from the satellite. Part of the data contained in the navigation message is the current GPS period, expressed in seconds. Thus, the receiver is able to set its own time indication to the exact whole second Another part of the navigation message is a set of numbers called the ephemera is that together describe the satellite’s orbit in space, and where the satellite is in that orbit at a particular time.
The receiver computes the exact location of the satellite in space from the ephemeral is and the current time. The result is a set of x, y and z coordinates where the satellite was when the signal was transmitted. These values tell the position of the satellite with respect to a coordinate system defined by the World Geodetic System 1984 (referred to as WGS84).
The origin of this coordinate system is near the Earth’s mass center, and its z-axis matches the mean spin axis of the Earth. +z is towards the North Pole; +x emerges from the Earth on the Greenwich meridian at the equator Gust south of Ghana, and west of Gabon, in the Atlantic Ocean). The +y axis emerges at the equator on the 90° East meridian (at a point in the Indian Ocean southeast of Sri Lanka and west of Sumatra), thus defining a right-hand coordinate system. At now, the receiver has the situation of every satellite and therefore the pseudo-range to its satellite. Using appropriate math the receiver computes its position (x, y, and z) and clock offset (At), To understand how this works, let’s look at it graphically. To make it easier to visualize, we will use a two-dimensional solution. The 3-dimensional solution works exactly the same, but with the added z factor.
Thus, we would define our position as located on the intersection of the three circles centered on each satellite with a radius equal to the respective Pseud oranges. But the three circles do not meet at a point. They intersect to form a triangle with arcs for sides (in some cases, they could even miss each other entirely).
In this case, we have added a small amount, t, to each Pseud-orange. The result is that we have adjusted each pseud-orange by the same amount, causing the circles to meet at a point. The coordinates now represent our position, and t represents our clock offset. As a result of this process, we not only know our position, but we also know the correct time (fractions of a second) within the resolution of our code pattern sifter. Time resolution is typical to fractions of microseconds, resulting in a time determination that is more accurate than about any other method generally available.
In fact, GPS receivers designed specifically to adjust atomic clocks yield time determinations that match UTC to within 10 nanoseconds.
Note that if the receiver is a long distance from the antenna, the satellite signals must travel that distance inside a cable to reach the electronic circuits that measure the pseudo-range. As a result, the measured pseudo-range increases by the time required to travel the distance represented by the cable length. In addition, signals tend to travel
Slower than the speed of light inside cables (in some cables, at less than two thirds the speed of light). This factor also increases the time for the signal to reach the receiver.
However, since the signals from all satellites travel this same distance, the effect is to add the same amount of time delay to all signals. Now recall that pseud-orange is that the total of the time it takes the signal to visit the receiver, and also the clock offset of the receiver.
Definitely, the distance from each satellite to the antenna is unique. The extra distance from the antenna to the receiver and the clock offset of the receiver are exactly the same in all measurements. When the receiver calculates the solution, these two constant terms become merged into a single value referred to as clock offset. The causes the x, y and z
Position coordinates to be a common point of the antenna.
So, using a longer or shorter antenna cable will not affect the position find out, but will only affect the computed clock offset.
Further, there be present a single point within the antenna where the antenna detects each signal. So this point is called the antenna phase center.
Since it usually is displaced from the main point of the antenna by several centimeters manufacturers of precision surveying receivers routinely publish the location of the phase center with respect to some opportune point accessible on the housing of the antenna.
This lets surveyors measure the distance between a station being surveyed and the antenna housing, and later relates that measurement to the antenna phase center, thus adjusting the survey results for the original distance between the station and the antenna phase center. Others point of interest specifically to those doing very high precision surveys, such as geodetic surveys, is that the phase center of an antenna is often different for different frequencies.
GSM Based GPS tracking system working efficiently to track any vehicle or any person’s location in proper way. We are observed that SIM808 module accurately received the signal from the source (Mobile phone, or any others device) and send information to that source with
- Latitude: 25.7383460
- Longitude: 89.2748180
- Wind Speed: 0.24 kph
- And also with Google Map Link.
Proof This Result:
Figure (2.9): Result of a GPS System
Advantage & Disadvantage Discussion
4.1 Advantage and disadvantage of GPS
GPS stands for global positioning system which was created by the US department of defense. There are several advantages of GPS at the moment and in distinction to it to that, there are some disadvantages conjointly.
GPS stands for global positioning system which was created by the US Department of defense for the navigation of the military in any part of the world under the situation. But with the time, this system is now being used for many other purposes and the GPS system has proved to be a revolutionary technology in today’s world. There are several advantages of GPS at the present and in contrast to that, there are some disadvantages. Some of them are:
Advantages of GPS:
- GPS is extremely easy to navigate as it tells you to the direction for each turns you take or you have to take to reach your target.
- GPS works in all weather so you need not worry about the climate as in other navigating devices.
- The GPS costs you very low in comparison to other navigation systems.
- The most attractive feature of this method is its 100 percent coverage on the planet.
- It also helps you to search the nearby restaurants, hotels and gas stations, etc and is very useful for a new place.
- Due to its low cost, it is very easy to integrate into other technologies like the cell phone.
- The method is updated regularly by the US government and hence is very advance.
- This is the best navigating system in water as in larger water bodies we are often misleading due to lack of proper directions.
Disadvantages of Global Positioning System
- Sometimes the GPS could fail due to certain reasons and in that case, you would like to hold map and directions.
- If you are using GPS on a battery-operated device, there may be a battery collapse and you may need an external power supply which is not always possible.
- Sometimes the GPS signals are not correct due to some obstacles to the signals like as buildings, trees and sometimes by extreme region conditions like geomagnetic storms.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to determine position and velocity on the Earth or even in space. Therefore many possible uses (“applications”) of GPS.
For example, we might want to design a car that drives itself. Maybe we will put the GPS receiver on the top of a car. The GPS receiver uses to connected to a computer inside the car that a person gives commands to. Draw an image showing these connections, and clarify how the system is to be used.
Some important uses of the GPS system are listed below :
- A space trumpet that navigates by itself using GPS
- One of the major applications is retagging meaning applying local coordinates to the digital object.
- A tractor that big dipper fields by itself using GPS
- An airplane that lands itself using GPS
- A football coach who tracks players on the field apply GPS
- A hiker who loses her way and returns to safety applying GPS
- Tracking a species of an animal using GPS
- Used in Astrometry and celestial mechanics calculations.
- It is also used in automated vehicles (driverless vehicles) to apply locations for cars and trucks.
- In case of any natural disaster, GPS is the best tool to identify the location. Even prior to disasters like cyclones, GPS helps in calculating the estimated time.
- GPS is a developer tool known for its potential to track military ships during the wartime.
- A GPS/GSM enabled car makes it easier to track its location.
- Uses centimeter-level positioning accuracy.
- helps in determining the location of nearby point of interests.
- Surveyors make use of the Global Positioning System to plot maps
Conclusion vehicle tracking system project:
The analysis and discussion of Global Positioning System concepts have revealed that GPS technology is a force in the force. Perhaps the system designers had a different purpose when developing and designing GPS technologies but these applications have added to the versatility of usage of GPS not only as a system for estimating the accurate positioning of objects but also in the provision of accurate and reliable navigation information. Irrespective of time, location, and whether, Global Position System provides an unparalleled range of services to commercial military and consumer applications. Majority of these services enables airborne, land, and sea users to know their exact velocity, location, and time whenever and wherever on Earth. Indeed, GPS technology supports numerous positioning and navigation applications that satisfy a multitude of user needs. At this moment, the widespread usage of GPS applications in different sectors of the economy makes it exceedingly difficult to think of a life without Global Positioning Systems. It is clear that creating a complex system like as GPS technology is not an easy task and this can be proven from the few competitors of GPS technology. GPS technologies and systems are used in totally different sectors of society. This contains road and rail transportation, marine navigation, agriculture, the airline trade, area science, military, and within the provision of public safety among others. Information and signals relayed by GPS systems are safe and reliable thereby making GPS technology the sampling navigation and positioning equipment.
This system can be developed to access more satellites from remote areas to get more available signals that will allow GPS users.
In the future, the GPS system can be developed by the video signal where the vehicle position, the condition will be visible.
This system can be noiseless without EMI effect by using the additional signal power and spectrum diversity.
The GPS system also developed in a broader area for observation, control and taken a positive step against broader crime with higher accuracy data.
#define MESSAGE_LENGTH 160
int messageIndex = 0;
#define PIN_TX 10
#define PIN_RX 11
DFRobot_SIM808 sim808(&mySerial);//Connect RX,TX,PWR,
//******** Initialize sim808 module *************
Serial.print(“Sim808 init error\r\n”);
Serial.println(“SIM Init success”);
Serial.println(“Init Success, please send SMS message to me!”);
//*********** Detecting unread SMS ************************
messageIndex = sim808.isSMSunread();
//*********** At least, there is one UNREAD SMS ***********
if (messageIndex > 0)
//************* Turn off the GPS power ************
Serial.println(“Please send SMS message to me!”);
sim808.readSMS(messageIndex, message, MESSAGE_LENGTH, phone, datetime);
//***********In order not to full SIM Memory, is better to delete it**********
Serial.print(“From number: “);
Serial.print(“Recieved Message: “);
Serial.println(“Open the GPS power failure”);
Serial.println(“Open the GPS power success”);
float la = sim808.GPSdata.lat;
float lo = sim808.GPSdata.lon;
float ws = sim808.GPSdata.speed_kph;
dtostrf(la, 4, 7, lat); //put float value of la into char array of lat. 4 = number of digits before decimal sign. 6 = number of digits after the decimal sign.
dtostrf(lo, 4, 7, lon); //put float value of lo into char array of lon
dtostrf(ws, 6, 2, wspeed); //put float value of ws into char array of wspeed
sprintf(MESSAGE, “Latitude : %s\nLongitude : %s\nWind Speed : %s kph\nEEE Dept. of REC.Developed by MIZAN,Polas, Jibon,Rakib. Try With This Link.\nhttp://www.latlong.net/Show-Latitude-Longitude.html\nhttp://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s,%s\n”, lat, lon, wspeed, lat, lon);
Serial.println(“Start to send message …”);
Requirement Software, Library and Code For Vehicle Tracking System Project