Introduction To Arduino
Arduino is a popular name in the current era. Arduino microcontroller-based prototyping open-source hardware. Arduino can be used to secure systems, robot control systems and various sensor type projects.
“Arduino is an open-source micro-controller development board. That basically facilitates the utilization of microcontrollers”
According to the above definition, many may ask, what is the micro-controller thing? Yes, microcontrollers and microprocessors are the ones who have made the most of the improvements made to digital control systems or automatic control systems. The micro-controller can be called a small computer. It has a processor, RAM, memory input/output edge at the same time. Before moving into details about Arduino, one should know about microcontrollers.
Various types of electronic devices such as sensors, LEDs, LCDs, motors, etc. can be used in their own way. And this program is loaded into the microcontroller of the Arduino board. Can’t load programs directly on the microcontroller. The platform of Arduino is quite popular in the current era.
- Free tools and drivers
- No Extra circuit board is needed to load programs on Arduino.
- Programming language: Simplified version of C ++ or C.
- The device can be reset without opening it.
- The chip can be easily changed if it is damaged.
- The Arduino can read analog and digital signals from different sensors and can operate according to the output instruction.
- It can be done on a Laptop or Notebook.
Types of Arduino
The Arduino is usually of different types. Different models of Arduino are available in the market such as Arduino UNO, Arduino Mega, Arduino, and others. Below are some pictures of the most widely used Arduino.
As we work with Arduino UNO, we will know some specifics about Arduino UNO.
- Microcontroller: ATmega328P
- Operating Voltage: 5v
- Input voltage: 7-20v
- Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
- Analog Input Pins: 6
- DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA
- DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
- Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
- SRAM: 2 KB
- EEPROM: 1 KB
- Clock Speed:16 MHz
- Length: 68.6 mm
- Width: 53.4 mm
- Weight: 25 g
Introduction to the Arduino UNO Board
The following serials 1, 2, 3 ……………… were identified by the image.
- Power USB: The Arduino board can be powered with a USB cable. Power USB is connected to the USB cable computer and the program loads.
- Power (Barrel Jack): The Arduino board can also be connected to the AC Maine power supply with a barrel jack. However, it should be noted that DC is 5 volts.
- Voltage Regulator: The voltage regulator regulates the voltage that is given to the Arduino. The voltage regulator keeps the DC voltage constant which usually goes to the processor and other appliances.
- Crystal Oscillator: The Crystal Oscillator deals with time-related issues, namely how Arduino calculates time. 16.000H9H Crystal Oscillator means its frequency is 16,000,000 Hertz or 16 MHz.
Arduino Reset 5 and 17 pins:
This section allows the Arduino Board to receive a receipt. Resetting Arduino resumes its work as per the loading program. The Arduino board can be reset in two ways: 1) Click the reset number 17. 2) It can be reset by connecting extra switch on pin 5.
Pin 6 – 3.3V: Supply 3.3-volt output.
Pin 7 – 5V: Supplies 5-volt output.
Pin 8 – GND(Ground): There are a few ground pins on the Arduino. Anyone can be used as a ground pin.
Pin 9 – Vin: This pin can also be used to power Arduino.
Analog PIN(10): The Arduino UNO has 5 analog input pins ranging from A0 to A5. These pins can read signals from analog sensors. Analog sensors include Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Light Dependent Resistor, etc. which is converted to a digital value for the microprocessor.
Main microcontroller(11): Each Arduino has a microcontroller called the brain of the Arduino board. The Arduino microcontroller is loaded with programs that output according to the instruction.
ICSP pin (12): ICSP Full Name is In-Circuit Serial Programming, whereby programs can be loaded using an Arduino or program loader other than the computer, or the program can be loaded into another Arduino using this Arduino.
Power LED Indicator(13): With the power of the Arduino, the LED lights will be lit. If the lights do not light up, you should understand that the power is not properly received.
TX & RX LEDs(14): There are two levels available on the board, 1) TX (Transmit) and 2) RX (Receive).
Digital I /0(15): The Arduino UNO board has 14 digital input/output pins, of which 6 pins are output with PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). These digital pins can read logic values (0 and 1). L, E, D relay, etc. can be controlled by a digital pin.
AREF(16): AREF means Analog Reference. It can be set between 0 and 5 volts. The voltage from which the reference is taken is divided by the voltage on the pin according to the voltage. If the reference voltage is not given then it works according to the supply voltage 5 volt.
The benefits of Arduino
- Any operating system (Windows, Mac, Linux) can be run.
- Programming languages can be easily performed.
- Many complex projects are easy to do with Arduino, and many electronics companies in the world are making Arduino based electronics.