The basic communication system consists of information/data transmission from one point to another like that the original/main information signal is passed through various stages and then undergoes so many changes in its orientation and features because of noise and attenuation. Moreover, in order to provide safe and faster communication.
Communication is simply the basic process of exchanging information/data.
The electronics equipment/materials which is used for communication purpose, are called communication equipment. Different communication equipment/materials when assembled together form a communication system.
A typical example of the communication system are line telephony and line telegraphy, radio broadcasting, point-to-point communication, and mobile communication, radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy, computer communication, radar communication, television broadcasting, radio telemetry, radio aids to aircraft landing, etc. we make use of various stages of different elements which is discussed in the article given below.
Table of Contents
The communication system is a device used in the transmission of information/data from one place to another. The nature of communication may be electrical, electronic or optical etc.
Types of Basic Communication System:
There are two basic modes of communication System: Point-to-Point and Broadcast.
1. In the broadcast mode, there are a large number of receivers corresponding to a single transmitter. Radio and television are examples of the broadcast mode of communication System.
2. In the point-to-point communication mode, communication takes in place over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver.
Telephony is an example of such as a mode of communication.
Components of Basic Communication System Process:
In the most elementary sense, communication involves the transmission of information/data from one point to another through a succession of the process as listed below :
- The generation of a thought image in the mind of an originator.
- The recreation of the original thought image, with a definable degradation in quality, in the mind of the recipient.
- The description of that image, with a certain measure of precision, by a set of verbal-visual symbols.
- The transmission of the encoded symbols to the wished-for destination.
- The encoding of these symbols in a form that is proper for transmission over a physical medium of interest.
- The decoding and reproduction of the actual symbols.
Block Diagram of Basic Communication System:
Fig. (i) shows the block diagram of a general communication system, in which the different functional elements are represented by blocks.
The necessary components of a communication system are an information source, input transducer, transmitter, communication channel, receiver, and destination.
Now, we will discuss the functioning of these blocks.
(i) Information Source
As we know, a communication system serves up to communicate a message or information or data. This information/data originates in the information source.
In general, there can be different messages in the form of words, groups of words, code, symbols, sound signals, etc. However, out of these messages, only the desired message is chosen and communicated.
Therefore, we can say that the function of the information source is to produce the required message which has to be transmitted.
(ii) Input Transducer
The input can be in any energy form (temperature, pressure, light) but for transmission purposes, this needs to be converted to electrical energy. The transducer does this.
1. An electronic communication system, we usually come across devices that either their inputs or outputs in the electrical form.
2. Any device that converts one form of energy/power into another can be termed as a transducer.
3. An electrical transducer defined as an apparatus that converts some physical changeable(“pressure, force, temperature, etc.”) into similar variations within the electrical signal at its output.
It converts information/data into a signal that is suitable for transmission over a medium. Transmitter increases the power of the signal thro power amplifiers and also provides interfaces to match the transmission medium, such as an antenna interface, fiber interface and so on.
The operate of the transmitter is to process the electrical signal from different aspects.
Just for example in radio broadcasting the electrical signal gained from the sound signal is processed to limit its range of audio frequencies (up to 5 kHz am radio broadcast ) and is often amplified.
A channel in a basic communication system just refers to the medium through which an electrical signal travels. These media are classified into two types such as guided as well as unguided. Guided media can be directed from a source in the direction of the receiver by using connective cables. In OFC-optical fiber communication, an optical fiber is a medium. Additional guided media may comprise telephone wire, coaxial cable, and twisted pairs, etc.
The second type of media namely unguided media that refers to a communication channel that forms space among the source as well as the receiver. In RF(radio frequency) communication, the medium is space which is called air. It is the only thing among the source & receiver whereas in further cases such as sonar, the medium is generally water since sound waves tour powerfully through assured liquid media. The two types of media are measured unguided for the reason that there are no connecting wires between the source as well as the receiver.
Noise is a challenge for communication engineers. It is random and unpredictable in nature. Noise is the undesirable electric energy that enters the communication system and interferes with the desired signal.
- Noise is produced at the transmitter, channel and also at the receiver. entirely.
- It can be man-made and natural.
- Natural noise: Lightning, Solar radiation, Thermal
- Man-made: Welding, Sparking, Motors, Car ignition, Tube lights, Electronic fan regulators, etc.
- Noise refers to the unwanted signals that oversee to disturb the transmission and processing of message signals in a communication system.
- The source generating the noise may be is located inside or outside the system.
A receiver essence the desired message signals from the received signals at the channel output.
- Receives the signal (desired) with noise (undesired).
- Recovers the original signal in spite of the noise.
- Consists of amplifiers, filters, mixers, oscillators, demodulators, transducers.
- The receiver consists of the same sequence of block diagrams.
- Whatever was done in the transmitter will be undone in the receiver.
- For example, modulation in TX will be matched by Demodulation in RX, A to D in TX will be undone by D to A in the receiver and so on.
The destination is the final stage which is used to convert an electrical message signal into its original form.
Just for example in radio broadcasting, the destination is a loudspeaker that works as a transducer i.e. converts the electrical signal in the form of the original sound signal.
There are some important applications of communication systems are given below,
- It is used in the military application for secure communication and missile guidance.
- It is used in image processing for pattern recognition, robotic vision, and image increase.
- It is used in digital signal processing.
- The digital communication systems used in telephony for text messaging, etc
- It’s used in space communication wherever a spacecraft transmits signals to earth.
- It is used in video compression.
- It is used in speech processing.
- It is used in digital audio transmission.
- It is used in data compression.
Important for Viva
What are the goals of the digital communication system?
What is the analog communication?
How does digital communication work?
Why is digital communication better than analog?
What is the difference between analog and digital communications?
Why is analog better than digital?
Why do we move from analog to digital?
Which is a better analog or digital signal?