The dependent and independent sources there are two types of source, namely *voltage source, and* *current source.* Sources can be independent or dependent upon some other quantities.

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## Explain The Dependent And Independent Sources:

### Independent Source:

Independent Sources are the sources, whose output value doesn’t depend upon the circuit parameters like voltage and current.

An independent source is two types

1. Independent voltage source

2. Independent current source

### Explain Independent voltage source:

An independent voltage source has a voltage that is independent of other quantities in a circuit. For example, a 10V voltage source is independent because the voltage is constant.

An *independent voltage source maintains* a voltage which is not affected by any other quantity. The usual independent voltage source symbol is given below,

*Classification:*

* *Ideal Independent Voltage Sources*

An independent voltage source is a two-terminal circuit element where the voltage across it

a)AnIdeal Independent Voltage* Sources* is independent of the current through it

b)An Ideal Independent Voltage* Sources* can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.

### Explain Independent Current sources:

An *independent current source maintains* a current which is unaffected by any other quantity. The usual independent current source symbol is given below-

#### Classification:

**Ideal Independent Current Sources*

In contrast to ideal independent voltage sources (IVS), an ideal independent current source (ICS) is a two-terminal circuit element, where the current passing through it,

a)*Ideal Independent Current Sources* is independent of the voltage across it

b)*Ideal Independent Current Sources* can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.

### Dependent Source:

Dependent Sources are the sources where output value depends upon the voltage or current at some other part of the circuit.

Dependent sources are most helpful, A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) will be designed as a dependent current source whose magnitude depends on the magnitude of the current maintained into its controlling base terminal. An operational amplifier(op-amp) can be described as a voltage source dependent on the differential input voltage between its input terminals.

Classification:

Dependent sources can be classified as follows:

- Voltage-controlled voltage source(VCVS): The source delivers the voltage as per the voltage of the dependent element.
**V = f**_{a }(V_{x}). - Voltage-controlled current source(VCCS): The source delivers the current as per the voltage of the dependent element.
**I= f**_{b}(V_{x}) - Current-controlled current source(CCCS): The source delivers the current as per the current of the dependent element.
**I=f**_{c}(i_{x}) - Current-controlled voltage source(CCVS): The source delivers the voltage as per the current of the dependentelement.
**V=f**_{d}(i_{x})

## Difference between independent and dependent sources:

Independent source are those, whose value of either the voltage or the current to be delivered is independent of any other parameter of the network.

Where as the dependent sources are those, whose value of either the voltage or the current to be delivered is dependent or controlled on other parameters of the network.

## Important Question:

**1. What is an example of a voltage source?**

Ans: An example of this is a battery that can convert chemical energy into electrical energy. This then leads to the definition of ideal sources. These are sources that doesn’t change even when a load is connected.

**2. What is an ideal voltage source?**

Ans: A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage. An ideal voltage source can be maintained the fixed voltage independent of the load resistance or the output current.

**3. How do you create a voltage source?**

Ans: An Ideal voltage sources can be connected together in both parallel or series the same as for any circuit element. Series voltages add together when parallel voltages have the same value. N,B; unequal ideal voltage sources cannot be connected directly together in parallel.

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