# Clipper And Clamper | Types Of Clipper And Clamper | Application

## Clipper And Clamper

Clipper and clamper common in the electronics circuit is a topic. This article attempts to discuss clipping and clamping.

### Clipping circuit

Clipping is an English word that means to be cut or trimmed. A clipping circuit is called an electronic circuit by which a section of sine wave applied to the input is cut or clipped to create a new shape.

This type of circuit is basically of 2 types

## Series Clipper

Series clippers are again classified into series negative clippers and series positive clippers which are  follows

### Series Negative Clipper

The above figure shows a  series negative clipper. During the positive half cycle, the diode acts as forward biased and conducts such that the entire positive half cycle of input drops across the resistor connected in parallel as output waveform. During the negative half cycle, the diode acts as reverse biased. No output appears across the resistor. Thus, it clips the negative half cycle of the input waveform, and therefore, it is called a series negative clipper.

### Series Negative Clipper With Positive Vr

A series negative clipper with positive voltage reference is similar to the series negative clipper, but in this, a positive reference voltage is added in series with the resistor. During the positive half cycle, the diode starts conducting only after its anode voltage value exceeds the negative voltage value. Since negative voltage becomes equal to the reference voltage, the output that appears across the resistor will be as shown in the above figure.

### Series Negative Clipper With Negative Vr

The series negative clipper with a negative voltage reference is similar to the series negative clipper with a positive voltage reference, but instead of positive Vr here a negative Vr is connected in series with the resistor, which makes the cathode voltage of the diode as a negative voltage. During the positive half cycle, the entire input appears as output drops across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the input appears as output until the input value will be less than the negative voltage reference, as shown in the figure.

### Series Positive Clipper

The series positive clipper circuit is shown in the figure. During the positive half cycle, the diode becomes reverse-biased, and no output is generated across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the diode conducts and the entire input appears as output across the resistor.

### Series Positive Clipper with Negative Vr

It is similar to the series positive clipper in addition to a negative voltage reference in series with a resistor; and here, during the positive half cycle, the output drops across the resistor as a negative reference voltage. During the negative half-cycle, the output is generated after reach a value greater than the negative voltage reference,  as shown in the above figure.

### Series Positive Clipper with Positive Vr

Instead of the negative voltage reference, a positive reference voltage is connected to obtain a series positive clipper with a positive voltage reference. During the positive half cycle, the reference voltage appears as output across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the entire input appears as output across the resistor.

## Shunt Clippers

Shunt clippers are classified into two types: shunt negative clippers and shunt positive clippers.

### Shunt Negative Clipper

The shunt negative clipper is shown in the above figure. During the positive half cycle, the entire input is the output, and during the negative half cycle, the diode conducts causing no output is generated from the input.

### Shunt Negative Clipper with Positive Vr

A series positive reference voltage is added to the diode shown in the figure. During the positive half cycle, the input is generated as output, and during the negative half cycle, a positive voltage reference will be the output voltage as shown above.

### Shunt Negative Clipper with Negative Vr

Instead of a positive voltage reference, a negative voltage reference is connected in series with the diode to form a shunt negative clipper with a negative reference voltage. During the positive half cycle, the entire input appears output, and during the negative half cycle, a reference voltage appears output as shown in the above figure.

### Shunt Positive Clipper

During the positive half cycle, the diode is in conduction mode and no output generates, and during the negative half cycle, the diode is in reverse bias the entire input appears as output as shown within the above figure.

### Shunt Positive Clipper with Negative Vr

During the positive half cycle, the negative voltage reference connected in series with the diode appears as output; and during the negative half cycle, the diode conducts until the input voltage value becomes greater than the negative voltage reference and output will be generated as shown in the figure.

### Shunt Positive Clipper with Positive Vr

During the positive half cycle the diode conducts causing the positive reference voltage to appear as output voltage; and, during the negative half cycle, the diode is in reverse biased the entire input is generated as the output.

## Combined Clipper

In addition to the positive and negative clippers, there’s a combined clipper that’s used to clipping both the positive and negative half-cycles as discussed below.

### Positive-Negative Clipper with Reference Voltage Vr

The circuit is connected as shown in the figure with a reference voltage, diodes D1 & D2. During the positive half cycle, the diode D1 conducts causing the reference voltage connected in series with D1 to appear across the output. During the negative cycle, the diode D2 conducts causing the negative voltage reference connected across the D2 appear as output, as shown in the above figure.

## Clamper Circuit

The positive or negative peak of a sign is often positioned at the desired level by using the clamper circuits. As we can shift the amount of peaks of the signal by using a clamper, hence, it is also called as a level shifter. The clamper circuit consists of capacitor and diode connected in parallel across the load. The clamper circuit depends on the change time constant of the capacitor. The capacitor must choose as, during the conduction of the diode, the capacitor must be enough to charge quickly and through the nonconducting period of the diode, the capacitor should not discharge drastically. The clampers are classified into positive and negative clampers based on the clamping method.

### Negative Clamper

During the positive half cycle for input, the diode is in forward bias- and the diode conducts-capacitor gets charged (up to peak value of input supply). During the negative half-cycle, the diode is reverse biased and does not conduct and the output voltage becomes equal to the sum of the input voltage and the voltage stored across the capacitor.

### Negative Clamper with Positive Vr

It is similar to negative clamper, but the output waveform is shifted towards the positive direction by a positive reference of voltage. As the positive voltage reference is connected in series with the diode, during the positive half cycle, even though the diode conducts, the output voltage becomes equal to the reference voltage; hence, the output is clamped towards the positive direction as shown within the above figure.

### Negative Clamper with Negative Vr

By inverting the reference voltage directions, the negative reference voltage is connected in series with the diode shown in the above figure. During the positive half cycle, the diode starts conduction before zero, as the cathode has a negative voltage reference, which is less than that of zero and the anode voltage, and therefore the waveform is clamped towards the negative direction by the reference voltage.

### Positive Clamper

It is almost similar to the negative clamper, but the diode is connected in the opposite direction. During the positive half cycle, the voltage across the output terminals becomes almost like the sum of the input voltage and capacitor voltage (considering the capacitor as initially fully charged). During the negative half cycle of input, the diode starts conducting and charges the capacitor rapidly to its peak input value. therefore the waveforms are clamped towards the positive direction as shown above.

### Positive Clamper with Positive Vr

A positive voltage reference is added in series with the diode of the positive clamper as shown in the circuit. During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode conducts initially, the supply voltage is less than the anode positive reference voltage. If once the cathode voltage is greater than the anode voltage then the diode stops conduction. During the negative half-cycle, diode conducts and charges the capacitor. The output is generated as shown within the figure.

### Positive Clamper with Negative Vr

The direction of the reference voltage is reversed, which is connected in series with the diode making it a negative reference voltage. During the positive half cycle, the diode acts as non conducting, such that the output is equal to capacitor voltage and input voltage. During the negative half-cycle,  diode starts conduction only after the cathode voltage value becomes less than the anode voltage. Therefore, the output waveforms are generated as shown in the above figure.

## Application

### Application Of Clippers

1. Clippers are often used for the separation of synchronizing signals from the combined signals.
2. The excessive noise spikes above a particular level can be clipped in FM transmitters by using the series clippers.
3. For the generation of new waveforms or shaping the prevailing waveform, clippers are used.
4. The typical application of the clipper is for the protection of transistor from transients, as a freewheeling diode connected in parallel across the inductive load.
5. Frequently used half-wave rectifier in power supply kits is an example of a  clipper. It clips positive or negative half-wave of the input signal.
6. Clippers can be used like voltage limiters and amplitude selectors.

### Application Of Clamper

1. Clamper is used as a baseline stabilizer to define sections of luminance signals to preset levels of the Transmitter and receiver circuit of television.
2. Clampers are also called as direct current restorers as they clamp the waveforms to a fixed DC potential.
3. These are often used in test equipment, sonar, and radar systems.
4. Clampers are used for protecting the amplifiers from large errant signals.
5. Clampers can be used for removing the distortions
6. Clampers are used for improving the overdrive recovery time.
7. Clampers can be used as like voltage doublers or voltage multipliers.

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Clipper And Clamper | Types Of Clipper And Clamper | Application
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Clipper and Clamper: Clipping is an English word that means to be cut or trimmed. A clipping circuit is called an electronic circuit by which a section of
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